1 A Methodology to Correct and Harmonize International Trade Data in Mineral Resources

There are often discrepancies in complementary trade data published by different countries. This article develops a method that compares the data for each country with those of its partner countries and assigns reliability scores which are then used to calculate a harmonized dataset. The whole process, from procuring and preparing the data to calculating the harmonized dataset, is described and discussed. The focus of this study is methodological. No actual analysis of trade data is provided. The approach contains numerous elements that might be useful when reconciling data from different sources without external indicators for true values.

作者:Bremer, Timo ; Perger, Johannes ; Schumacher, Arne
出版月(日)年:2024 JUL 5
2 National and international trade in poultry and poultry products in light of the valid legal regulations

Freedom of international flow of goods, services, people and animals, including poultry and poultry products, poses a threat of spreading infectious diseases to people and animals. This requires public administration bodies to take certain measures to minimise the spread of animal infectious diseases, including zoonotic diseases, which pose a threat to public health. The World Trade Organization (WTO) regulates global trade in poultry and poultry products, working in cooperation with the World Organization for Animal Health (WOAH). In order to ensure the safety of food of animal origin, WOAH works together with the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). Animal health and international trade in poultry and poultry products in the European Union countries have been regulated since 21 May 2021 by the Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council (EU) 2016/429 of 9 March 2016, the so-called "Animal Health Law" (AHL), and the delegated and implementing acts that accompany it. The provisions of the regulation are applied directly in all the EU member states, which arises from Article 288 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). According to the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2020/2002, there is the Animal Disease Information System (ADIS) in the EU, which imposes an obligation to inform the European Commission and other EU Member States within 24 hours of confirming the existence of the primary outbreak of a category A disease (controlled ex officio). With respect to poultry diseases, following the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/1882 of 3 December 2018, AHL regulations apply to the following: Newcastle Disease (ND) and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) as well as mycoplasmosis in chickens and turkeys, caused by Mycoplasma (M.) gallisepticum, and in turkeys, caused by M. meleagridis, infections in chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls, quails, pheasants, partridges and ducks, caused by Salmonella (S.) Pullorum and S. Gallinarum and in turkeys, caused by S. Arizonae, as well as bird viral infections of lowly pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI), avian chlamydiosis in parrots, and West Nile Fever. The AHL did not repeal the Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council 2160/2003 of 17 November 2023, which obligates the EU Member States to implement programmes of Salmonella control as part of the national programmes. Moreover, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was appointed, and the Rapid Alert System of Food and Feed (RASF) was established to inform about the threats found in food, feed and materials intended for contact with food. Observing these regulations on the national, community and international levels is of key importance in controlling each infectious animal disease and preventing threats to public health.

作者:Tykalowski, Bartlomiej ; Koncicki, Andrzej
出版月(日)年:2024 AUG
卷(期),頁碼:80 (8) , 365-369
3 The Republic of China (Taiwan) "Free Zones" Experience, or Origin of "Made in Taiwan" Tags

Starting from the 1960s, many states began to create territories with a special business regime. They are called differently, but they are based on the concept of a free zone, within which imported goods are considered located outside the customs territory of the state. The establishment of free zones often does not bring the expected results. The problem lies in particular in the fact that the formal existence of a regulatory act providing for exemption from fiscal and other payments is not the main condition for attracting foreign investment. Identifying a set of factors and determining the significance of legal regulation is important from a theoretical and practical point of view. The most famous and frequently mentioned are the special economic areas of the People's Republic of China, but mainland China was not a pioneer. It was in Taiwan that the first export processing areas in Asia were established. Their specificity lies in the active role of the state and in the fact that foreign investments were used primarily as a source of technology transfer. Taiwan has made great strides in the economy and export processing areas have played a significant role in this. Based on the initial data on the creation and indicators of such areas, in this article attempts to comprehensively consider the relevant legislation and practice of Taiwan, taking into account its obligations under the WTO, as well as the identification of conditions that ensure the achievement of the goals of creating a free zone are given. Comparative legal and formal logical methods were used in the study. It has been established that the lack of raw materials, as well as the available market volume, are not determining factors for export processing areas. It is concluded that the role of regulatory act in the process of attracting foreign investment is limited. The absence of direct instructions in an international treaty does not mean an exception to legal regulation. The status of an unrecognized state and the absence of diplomatic relations do not have a negative impact on the export processing areas.

作者:Shepenko, Roman A.
卷(期),頁碼:(2) , 241-266
4 Trade Policy Review of Turkey

This paper examines the WTO's 2023 Trade Policy Review (TPR) of Turkey, covering 2016-2022. As Turkey marked its centenary in 2023, the TPR allows for critical reflections on Turkey's global and European economic integration and its evolving economic policies. The review period witnessed key developments: heightened tensions with the European Union (EU), the country's transition into a presidential system, and the impacts of COVID-19 and the Ukraine war. Turkey continued its state-led development and proactive industrial policy post-Global Financial Crisis, aiming to reduce the current account deficit, diversify exports, advance technological sophistication and enhance its position in global value chains (GVCs). Recently Turkey has further aligned its import-export regimes and trade negotiations with these strategic goals, increasing its Most Favoured Nation tariffs and adopting localisation strategies to support key sectors. Turkey navigated the pandemic effectively, bolstering its role in global supply chains, as indicated by its increased trade-to-GDP ratio. This underscores its economic resilience and strategic location. However, Turkey's trade policies are increasingly diverging from those of the EU, its main trade and supply chain partner and Customs Union ally. Turkey's new Regional Trade Agreements aim for deeper sectoral integration with partners other than the EU.

作者:Altay, Serdar
出版月(日)年:2024 JUL 7
5 The US-China trade war: interrogating globalisation of technology

The US-China trade War in 2018 is one of the 595 documented trade-related disputes reported by the WTO since 1995. Despite the January 2020 agreement between the two countries, the causes of the trade wars appear implicated in international economic relations between the two world economies. In this trade war, the dominant narratives revolve around currency pegging, trade imbalance, intellectual property rights, and most-favoured-nation status as factors propelling the US-China trade war. While these factors have drawn significant attention to scholarly study, they have yet to yield reliable insight into the role of globalisation and technology. With the help of explanatory research design, the study offered an understanding of why the US-China trade war results from the structural changes of economic globalization facilitated by technology diffusion that shift economic growth benefits from the Global North to the Global South with internal structural implications for the US.

作者:Chukwuma, Nzube A. ; Ngoc, Le Minh ; Mativenga, Previous
出版月(日)年:2024 DEC 31
卷(期),頁碼:10 (1)
6 Long-term effect of trade liberalization on human capital: evidence from Chinese students

This study examines the long-term effects of trade liberalization on human capital accumulation for students, specifically through schooling decisions. To establish this linkage, I leverage the significant reduction in trade tariffs following China's WTO accession in 2001 as an identification strategy and construct the shift-share instrument variable for each Chinese prefecture's exposure to trade shock. Utilizing cognitive test scores from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) dataset for cohorts aged between 13 to 20 at the time of trade liberalization, I find that the trade shock leads to a decline in cognitive test scores approximately 15 years later. Furthermore, combining CFPS data with the China Population Census, I demonstrate that export expansion has resulted in a reduction in university enrollment and less education years among youth.

作者:Fu, Jintao
出版月(日)年:2024 JUL 5
7 The Effects of Transit Systems on International Trade

In this paper, we estimate the trade effects of a transit system upgrading that streamlines border processing in developing countries. Our empirical approach combines transaction-level export data from El Salvador with unique data that distinguishes export flows that were processed on the transit system. Our results indicate that the new transit system lowered regulatory border costs and raised exports. At the low end, our back-of-the-envelope estimate of the return to investment is US$ 3-to-1. This evidence informs a policy covered by the 2013 WTO Agreement of Trade Facilitation.

作者:Carballo, Jeronimo ; Graziano, Alejandro G. ; Schaur, Georg ; Martincus, Christian Volpe
出版月(日)年:2024 JUL 8
卷(期),頁碼:106 (4) , 1083-1098
DOI: 10.1162/rest_a_01189
8 Increase in Global Subsidies and Trade in Africa: Challenges and Opportunities

The utilization of subsidies has increased recently due to several factors such as the COVID-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine. Despite the economic and social justification of the provision of subsidies, there have been increasing debates. This paper analyses the trade implications of the increase in global subsidies on African trade. To better understand the nature and scale of these implications, we provide a review of the international disciplines on subsidies as well as the economics of subsidies. Relying on stylized facts, we demonstrate that the increase in subsidies by developed and emerging countries has depressed the world cotton price and trade performance in Africa. We recognize the important role played by well -designed subsidies. However, harmful subsidies like cotton subsidies should be substantially downscaled or removed. To that end, reforming agricultural subsidies becomes a necessity as it holds the potential to reduce income inequality. Further, governments should work closely with the World Trade Organization (WTO) to clarify and strengthen international disciplines on subsidies. Moreover, we suggest that the WTO should adopt stricter supervision of developed and emerging countries ' subsidies process and a more transparent notification process.

作者:Kanngi, Stephen ; Takpara, Moukaila Mouzamilou
出版月(日)年:2024 JUL
卷(期),頁碼:19 (7-8) , 484-495
9 Exporting, Abatement, and Firm-Level Emissions: Evidence from China's Accession to the WTO

This paper studies the joint impact of exporting and abatement on the environmental performance of Chinese manufacturers. For two common air pollutants (SO2 and industrial dust) we document that (a) exporters are significantly less emissions-intensive relative to their nonexporting counterparts and (b) this difference cannot be explained by differential rates of abatement alone. Employing variation in trade and environmental conditions across time and space, we quantify the impact of endogenous export and abatement decisions on firm-level emissions. We find that exporting reduces emissions by at least 36% across pollutants. We explore underlying determinants of export-driven reductions in emissions intensity.

作者:Rodrigue, Joel ; Sheng, Dan ; Tan, Yong
出版月(日)年:2024 JUL 8
卷(期),頁碼:106 (4) , 1064-1082
10 Critical Allies and Core Geopolitics in Minerals Trade: Devising a Strategy for India

The shifting geopolitical landscape and the increased demand for critical minerals in the efforts towards green transition have underscored the need to build predictable and resilient mineral supply chains. With the fundamental idea of strengthening economic resilience and ensuring security of supply, countries are increasingly resorting to reshoring, friend -shoring and nearshoring policies in critical minerals trade. Against this backdrop, this article summarizes WTO rules governing international trade in critical minerals and examines emerging international legal trends shaping trade and supply chains in critical minerals. It offers recommendations for devising India ' s strategy for critical minerals taking into account the security of supply, international trade rules and other commercial considerations.

作者:Janardhan, Sparsha ; Bhattacharya, Aparna
出版月(日)年:2024 MAR
卷(期),頁碼:19 (3) , 143-151