Green_Earth
United States - Countervailing Measures on Supercalendered Paper from Canada - Recourse to article 22.6 of the DSU by the United States - Decision by the Arbitrator
日期:2022/07/13
作者:United States
文件編號:WT/DS505/ARB
附件下載:WTDS505ARB.pdf
因為版本問題,開啟附件時可能會出現錯誤訊息,如「檔案已損毀」的訊息,請您忽略此訊息,即可正常開啟

United States – Countervailing Measures on

Supercalendered Paper from Canada

recourse to article 22.6 of the dsu by the United States

Decision by the arbitrator

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

1   Introduction.. 12

1.1   Original proceedings. 12

1.2   Referral to arbitration and arbitration proceeding. 13

2   Procedural matters. 15

2.1   Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the meeting with the parties. 15

2.2   Delayed public presentation of the meeting with the parties. 17

3   The mandate of the Arbitrator. 18

4   Burden of proof. 19

5   The measure at issue. 19

6   The United States' general objections to the level of nullification or impairment. 20

6.1   Preliminary issues. 20

6.1.1   Whether the United States has rebutted the presumption of nullification or impairment 20

6.1.2   Propriety of using a prospective model approach and governing principles. 26

6.2   Events triggering the application of the prospective model and duration of suspension. 26

6.2.1   Triggering events. 29

6.2.1.1   Legal considerations. 30

6.2.1.2   Factual considerations. 31

6.2.2   Duration and timing of suspension. 32

6.2.3   Conclusion. 33

6.3   The appropriate counterfactual 33

6.3.1   Legal standard. 33

6.3.2   General counterfactual 34

6.3.3   Company-specific CVD rates. 35

6.3.4   All-others CVD rates. 39

6.4   Reference period. 47

6.4.1   United States' proposal 49

6.4.2   Canada's original proposal 51

6.4.3   Canada's revised proposal 51

6.4.4   Arbitrator's proposal 52

6.4.5   Conclusion. 53

7   Assessment of the parties' economic models. 54

7.1   Canada's proposed model 54

7.1.1   Overview. 54

7.1.2   Assessment 56

7.1.2.1   Approximation error 57

7.1.2.2   Extreme results under a log-linearized model 59

7.1.2.3   Offsetting effects. 61

7.1.2.4   Pre-determination of the market-share parameter 64

7.1.2.5   Implementation in two steps. 66

7.1.3   Conclusion. 67

7.2   United States' proposed model 68

7.2.1   Overview. 68

7.2.2   Assessment 69

7.2.2.1   Unknown number of varieties. 70

7.2.2.2   Determination of market shares and market size in the future. 71

7.2.2.3   Unpredictability of model outcomes. 71

7.2.2.4   Determination of imports from unaffected exporters. 72

7.2.3   Conclusion. 72

7.3   Selected methodology: four-varieties Armington model 72

8   Implementation of the selected Armington Model. 74

8.1   Data inputs. 75

8.1.1   Market shares and market size. 75

8.1.1.1   Share of US domestic shipments. 76

8.1.1.1.1   Selection of data sources. 76

8.1.1.1.1.1   Commission reports. 76

8.1.1.1.1.2   Undefined industry/trade association data. 77

8.1.1.1.1.3   Data underlying BEA I-O tables. 77

8.1.1.1.1.4   BEA I-O table data. 80

8.1.1.1.2   Procedures for calculating the share of US domestic shipments () 81

8.1.1.2   Value of affected and unaffected Canadian imports. 84

8.1.1.2.1   Calculating the value of imports with US Customs data. 84

8.1.1.2.1.1   Reasonableness of using US Customs data. 85

8.1.1.2.1.2   Initial notification by Canada to the United States following a triggering event 87

8.1.1.2.1.3   Search of US Customs data and provision of data to Canada. 91

8.1.1.2.1.4   Verification of US Customs data and consultations procedures. 97

8.1.1.2.1.5   Import data from unaffected Canadian producers. 106

8.1.1.2.2   Calculating the value of imports in the absence of US Customs data. 108

8.1.1.2.2.1   Selection of a residual category. 109

8.1.1.2.2.2   Companies subject to a factual individual CVD rate. 111

8.1.1.2.2.3   Companies subject to a factual non-selected rate. 118

8.1.1.2.2.4   Companies subject to a factual all-others rate. 119

8.1.1.2.2.5   Time allowed for Canada to calculate the value of imports. 120

8.1.1.2.2.6   Consultations procedures. 121

8.1.1.2.3   A special case: new shippers. 122

8.1.1.2.3.1   New shipper reviews as triggering events. 127

8.1.1.2.3.2   Time period from which to take new shippers' values of imports. 127

8.1.1.2.3.3   Data source for value of imports. 128

8.1.1.2.3.4   Further adjustments to the value of imports. 129

8.1.1.2.3.5   Incorporation of new shippers' values of imports in the model 130

8.1.1.2.3.6   Conclusion: new shippers. 131

8.1.1.3   Value of RoW imports. 131

8.1.2   Duty rates. 131

8.1.2.1   Duties other than CVDs. 131

8.1.2.2   Provisional CVDs. 134

8.1.2.3   Assignment of CVD rates to specific Canadian companies' values of imports. 134

8.1.2.3.1   Procedures common to all companies. 135

8.1.2.3.2   Companies subject to a factual individual CVD rate. 136

8.1.2.3.3   Companies subject to a factual non-selected rate. 136

8.1.2.3.4   Companies subject to a factual all-others rate. 137

8.1.2.3.5   New shippers. 138

8.1.2.4   Assigning single duty rates to the affected and unaffected Canadian varieties. 138

8.1.3   Summary of guidance for values of imports and duty rates. 138

8.1.4   Armington substitution elasticity (σ) 144

8.1.5   Price elasticity of demand (ε) 150

8.1.6   Price elasticity of supply (η) 154

8.2   Implementation of the Armington model under the two steps. 157

9   Price-level adjustment. 158

9.1   Reasonableness, purpose, and relevant price index. 159

9.2   Measurement of change in the price level 160

9.3   Data availability. 161

9.4   Technical implementation. 162

10   Notifications to the DSB. 163

11   Conclusion.. 163