Green_Earth
United States - Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties on Certain Products and the Use of Facts Available - Report of the Panel
日期:2021/01/21
作者:Dispute Settlement Body
文件編號:WT/DS539/R
附件下載:WTDS539R.pdf
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UNITED STATES – ANTI‑DUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES ON CERTAIN PRODUCTS AND THE USE OF FACTS AVAILABLE

Report of the Panel

BCI deleted, as indicated [[***]]

 

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

1   Introduction.. 20

1.1   Complaint by Korea. 20

1.2   Panel establishment and composition. 20

1.3   Panel proceedings. 20

1.3.1   General 20

1.3.2   Working Procedures on Business Confidential Information. 21

1.3.3   Preliminary ruling request 21

2   Factual aspects. 21

2.1   The measures at issue. 21

3   Parties' requests for findings and recommendations. 24

4   Arguments of the parties. 25

5   Arguments of the third parties. 25

6   Interim review.. 25

7   Findings. 25

7.1   General issues. 26

7.1.1   Treaty interpretation. 26

7.1.2   Burden of proof 26

7.1.3   Standard(s) of review. 27

7.2   Interpretative framework. 29

7.2.1   Anti‑Dumping Agreement 30

7.2.2   SCM Agreement 34

7.2.3   "Best information available" and "comparative evaluation" 35

7.3   Korea's "as applied" claims. 37

7.3.1   Anti‑dumping duties on certain corrosion‑resistant steel products from Korea (USDOC investigation number A‑580‑878) 37

7.3.1.1   Introduction. 37

7.3.1.2   Factual background. 38

7.3.1.3   Main arguments of the parties. 40

7.3.1.4   Evaluation by the Panel 42

7.3.1.4.1   The USDOC's resort to facts available. 42

7.3.1.4.2   The USDOC's selection of the replacement facts. 47

7.3.1.5   Korea's claims under Articles 1, 9.3, and 18.1 of the Anti‑Dumping Agreement 48

7.3.2   Anti‑dumping duties on certain cold‑rolled steel flat products from Korea (USDOC investigation number A‑580‑881) 48

7.3.2.1   Introduction. 48

7.3.2.2   Affiliated party transactions. 49

7.3.2.2.1   Factual background. 49

7.3.2.2.2   Main arguments of the parties. 51

7.3.2.2.3   Evaluation by the Panel 54

7.3.2.2.3.1   The USDOC's resort to facts available. 54

7.3.2.2.3.2   The USDOC's selection of the replacement facts. 63

7.3.2.3   Alleged misreporting of control numbers (CONNUMs) 64

7.3.2.3.1   Factual background. 64

7.3.2.3.2   Main arguments of the parties. 68

7.3.2.3.3   Evaluation by the Panel 70

7.3.2.3.3.1   The USDOC's resort to facts available. 70

7.3.2.3.3.2   The USDOC's selection of the replacement facts. 74

7.3.2.4   Korea's claims under Articles 1, 9.3, and 18.1 of the Anti‑Dumping Agreement 75

7.3.3   Anti‑dumping duties on certain hot‑rolled steel flat products from Korea (USDOC investigation number A‑580‑883) 76

7.3.3.1   Introduction. 76

7.3.3.2   Factual background. 76

7.3.3.3   Main arguments of the parties. 78

7.3.3.4   Evaluation by the Panel 80

7.3.3.4.1   The USDOC's resort to facts available. 80

7.3.3.4.2   The USDOC's selection of the replacement facts. 86

7.3.3.5   Korea's claims under Articles 1, 9.3, and 18.1 of the Anti‑Dumping Agreement 87

7.3.4   Countervailing duties on certain cold‑rolled steel flat products from Korea (USDOC investigation number C‑580‑882) 87

7.3.4.1   Introduction. 87

7.3.4.2   Factual background. 88

7.3.4.2.1   The USDOC's resort to facts available. 88

7.3.4.2.1.1   Cross‑owned affiliate input suppliers. 88

7.3.4.2.1.2   POSCO facility in an FEZ. 89

7.3.4.2.1.3   DWI loan data. 90

7.3.4.2.2   The USDOC's selection of the replacement facts. 91

7.3.4.3   Main arguments of the parties. 92

7.3.4.3.1   The USDOC's resort to facts available. 92

7.3.4.3.1.1   Cross‑owned affiliate input suppliers. 92

7.3.4.3.1.2   POSCO facility in an FEZ. 94

7.3.4.3.1.3   DWI loan data. 96

7.3.4.3.2   The USDOC's selection of the replacement facts. 97

7.3.4.4   Evaluation by the Panel 98

7.3.4.4.1   The USDOC's resort to facts available. 98

7.3.4.4.1.1   Cross‑owned affiliate input suppliers. 99

7.3.4.4.1.2   POSCO facility in an FEZ. 101

7.3.4.4.1.3   DWI loan data. 104

7.3.4.4.2   The USDOC's selection of the replacement facts. 106

7.3.4.4.2.1   Cross‑owned affiliate input suppliers. 106

7.3.4.4.2.2   POSCO facility in an FEZ. 109

7.3.4.4.2.3   DWI loan data. 109

7.3.4.5   Korea's claims under Articles 10, 19.4, and 32.1 of the SCM Agreement 109

7.3.5   Countervailing duties on certain hot‑rolled steel flat products from Korea (USDOC investigation number C‑580‑884) 110

7.3.5.1   Introduction. 110

7.3.5.2   Factual background. 110

7.3.5.2.1   The USDOC's resort to facts available. 111

7.3.5.2.1.1   Cross‑owned affiliate input suppliers. 111

7.3.5.2.1.2   POSCO facility in an FEZ. 113

7.3.5.2.1.3   DWI loan data. 114

7.3.5.2.2   The USDOC's selection of the replacement facts. 114

7.3.5.3   Main arguments of the parties. 115

7.3.5.3.1   The USDOC's resort to facts available. 115

7.3.5.3.1.1   Cross‑owned affiliate input suppliers. 115

7.3.5.3.1.2   POSCO facility in an FEZ. 116

7.3.5.3.1.3   DWI loan data. 117

7.3.5.3.2   The USDOC's selection of the replacement facts. 117

7.3.5.4   Evaluation by the Panel 118

7.3.5.4.1   The USDOC's resort to facts available. 118

7.3.5.4.1.1   Cross‑owned affiliate input suppliers. 118

7.3.5.4.1.2   POSCO facility in an FEZ. 120

7.3.5.4.1.3   DWI loan data. 121

7.3.5.4.2   The USDOC's selection of the replacement facts. 122

7.3.5.5   Korea's claims under Articles 10, 19.4, and 32.1 of the SCM Agreement 122

7.3.6   Anti-dumping duties on large power transformers from Korea (USDOC investigation number A‑580‑867) 123

7.3.6.1   Introduction. 123

7.3.6.2   The second administrative review (POR2) 124

7.3.6.2.1   Introduction. 124

7.3.6.2.2   Factual background. 124

7.3.6.2.3   Main arguments of the parties. 127

7.3.6.2.4   Evaluation by the Panel 129

7.3.6.2.4.1   The USDOC's resort to facts available. 129

7.3.6.2.4.2   The USDOC's selection of the replacement facts. 132

7.3.6.3   The third administrative review (POR3) 133

7.3.6.3.1   Introduction. 133

7.3.6.3.2   The USDOC's resort to facts available. 133

7.3.6.3.2.1   Service‑related revenues. 133

7.3.6.3.2.2   Alleged understatement of home‑market prices. 139

7.3.6.3.2.3   Accessories. 143

7.3.6.3.2.4   Certain sales documentation. 147

7.3.6.3.3   The USDOC's selection of the replacement facts. 150

7.3.6.3.3.1   Factual background. 150

7.3.6.3.3.2   Main arguments of the parties. 150

7.3.6.3.3.3   Evaluation by the Panel 151

7.3.6.4   The fourth administrative review (POR4) 151

7.3.6.4.1   Introduction. 151

7.3.6.4.2   HHI 151

7.3.6.4.2.1   Accessories. 151

7.3.6.4.2.2   Gross unit price for certain home market sales. 156

7.3.6.4.2.3   US sales agent 160

7.3.6.4.3   Hyosung. 163

7.3.6.4.3.1   Service‑related revenues. 163

7.3.6.4.3.2   Invoice covering multiple US sales. 167

7.3.6.4.3.3   Discounts and price adjustments. 170

7.3.6.4.4   The USDOC's selection of the replacement facts for HHI and Hyosung. 173

7.3.6.4.4.1   Factual background. 173

7.3.6.4.4.2   Main arguments of the parties. 173

7.3.6.4.4.3   Evaluation by the Panel 173

7.3.6.4.5   The USDOC's selection of an "all others" rate. 173

7.3.6.4.5.1   Factual background. 173

7.3.6.4.5.2   Main arguments of the parties. 174

7.3.6.4.5.3   Evaluation by the Panel 174

7.3.6.5   Korea's claims under Articles 1, 9.3, and 18.1 of the Anti‑Dumping Agreement 176

7.4   Korea's "as such" claim.. 177

7.4.1   Preliminary ruling. 177

7.4.1.1   Article 6.2 of the DSU. 179

7.4.1.2   Whether Korea's panel request is consistent with Article 6.2 of the DSU. 180

7.4.1.3   Conclusion. 181

7.4.2   "As such" claim against the alleged unwritten measure. 181

7.4.3   The measure at issue. 182

7.4.3.1   Introduction. 182

7.4.3.2   The precise content of the alleged unwritten measure. 183

7.4.3.3   The legal characterization of the alleged unwritten measure. 186

7.4.4   Korea's reliance on prior WTO disputes. 186

7.4.5   Whether Korea has established the existence of the AFA rule or a norm with the precise content alleged by it 189

7.4.5.1   Written instruments and rulings. 190

7.4.5.1.1   Statutory provisions of US law. 190

7.4.5.1.2   USDOC Anti‑Dumping Manual 195

7.4.5.1.3   Rulings by US courts. 196

7.4.5.2   The USDOC's alleged "practice" 197

7.4.5.3   The nature of an "as such" claim.. 204

7.4.5.4   Conclusion regarding the "AFA rule or norm" 206

7.4.6   Whether Korea has established the existence of the AFA ongoing conduct with the precise content alleged by it 206

7.4.7   Overall conclusion. 210

8   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION.. 211